In 2005 Citroen presented C5 by wire, which used new technology and was able to bring a fresh air over the Marque. The used technology was first developed by the aerospace domain and was called X by Wire. It characterized through a replace of the connections used between controls such as pedal assembly or steering wheel with some new electronic ones Citroen "C5 by Wire" had a V6 engine of 3.0 liters that was able of no less than 210 HP. The introduction of the electronic connection permitted some new interior design which reflected also on the exterior. The car has no pedal assembly and the accelerations controls, braking and steering are grouped on the steering wheel. Brakes controllers of Citroen "C5 by Wire" are located at the end of the steering wheel. When those are pressed, the cruise control will be disconnected.
Citroen is presenting a new technology demonstration vehicle, "C5 by Wire". This vehicle reflects two of the objectives pursued by the Marque: to develop a vision of the automotive future and to continuously devise new solutions to improve driving pleasure, safety and interior layout.
Originally developed by the aerospace industry, "X-by-Wire" technology involves replacing the mechanical connections between controls (steering wheel, pedal assembly, etc.) and sub-systems (steering, brakes, etc.) with electronic connections.
This concept is illustrated by the cabin layout of the Citroen "C5 by Wire". First, the steering wheel groups the steering, braking and acceleration controls, and second, there is no pedal assembly. The multifunctional steering wheel thus plays an essential role.
Already presented on the C-Crosser and C-Airdream concept cars, "X-by-Wire" technology is now being partly trialled on the Citroen C5. This production vehicle has a V6 3.0i engine developing 210 bhp DIN (152 kW), mated with an automatic gearbox.
"X-by-Wire" technology opens new possibilities in interior design by replacing mechanical components such as the pedal assembly and the steering column. Grouping all the driving controls on the wheel is an ergonomic solution that also promotes easy use. As a result, controls can be activated more quickly for enhanced safety.
Operating principle of the driver interface
Essential driving functions are managed by the driver, who holds the steering wheel in the "quarter-to-three" position in order to activate the controls. The lower and upper parts of the steering wheel hoop have been removed, allowing full use of the all-electric variable-ratio steering, which is particularly sharp at low speeds.
The driver uses the right or left thumb to reach the forward-facing acceleration paddles on either side of the wheel. It was necessary to provide two paddles in order to allow the driver to accelerate and, at the same time, to activate the lighting on the left, and the windscreen wipers, headlamp washers and horn on the right.
Automatic cruise control is also available to regulate speed and enhance driving comfort, avoiding the need for the driver to keep pressing the paddles. Cruise control is disconnected when the driver brakes or accelerates.
The brakes are controlled by "triggers" located at either end of the steering wheel. The driver uses the right or left index finger to reach these controls. Brake force is applied intuitively. These controls are all highly ergonomic. They feel completely natural to use, after just a short time behind the wheel.
The "X-by-Wire" system: technology serving safety
The multifunctional steering wheel plays an essential role. Easy to use, it allows the driver to concentrate on the road, thus clearly contributing to safety. Safety was an essential factor in the development of "X-by-Wire" systems for the automotive industry. The absence of the pedal assembly and steering column considerably enhances safety, since the risk of injury in the event of impact is significantly reduced. In addition, the space freed up for the legs improves ergonomics and postural comfort.
Also, having the controls on the steering wheel increases the speed of execution, particularly when braking. Precious time is gained, since the driver no longer has to reach for the brake pedal.
Variable-ratio electric steering
The all-electric steering system provides:
- a variable steering wheel angle/wheel angle ratio, adjusted automatically to suit the driver's requirements and the speed of the vehicle. In particular, this function makes parking much easier, thanks to the more direct steering ratio (between one and two turns of the wheel compared with three turns in general). This feature also ensures pin-sharp steering at high speeds.
- considerable latitude in adapting and defining steering parameters in terms of torque (controlling wheel vibration, for example), angle (small turns of the wheels) and vehicle behaviour (overall chassis control).
Electro-hydraulic braking system
The braking system is electro-hydraulic. There is no pedal assembly, but the electric button on the steering wheel plays exactly the same role as a conventional system. Brake force is applied progressively, in an intuitive and natural way. To brake, the driver simply applies pressure to one or both of the steering wheel handles.
With the "C5 by Wire", Citroen is exploring new technological options. By eliminating echanical limits and constraints, it aims to pioneer more attractive and ergonomic cockpit design that adapts to the needs of each driver and brings significant progress in active safety.
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